Russia's ruling United Russia party has cruised to an easy victory in parliamentary polls that could pave the way for President Vladimir Putin to glide to a fourth term in 2018 elections, partial results showed.
Sunday's ballot for the 450-seat State Duma was smooth sailing for authorities desperate to avoid a repeat of mass protests last time round and eager to increase their dominance as Russia faces the longest economic crisis of Putin's rule.
But a low turnout suggested that many Russians may have been turned off by a system in which the Kremlin wields near-total power, which could raise questions over legitimacy.
"We can announce already with certainty that the party secured a good result, that it won," Putin said after polls closed.
"The situation is tough and difficult but the people still voted for United Russia," he said on state television.
With 90 per cent of the votes counted, the United Russia party had 54.3 per cent of votes, securing it at least 338 seats in the 450-member parliament, up from 238 previously, according to results announced early today.
It was followed by the Communists and the ultranationalist Liberal Democratic Party, at 13.5 per cent and 13.3 per cent respectively, and A Just Russia, which received 6.2 per cent, results published by the election commission showed.
Those four parties - which made up the last parliament and which all back the Kremlin - were the only ones to clear the five per cent threshold needed to claim a share of the one-half of seats up for grabs.
The vote comes as Putin's approval ratings remain high at around 80 per cent and authorities appear to be banking on trouble-free presidential elections in two years.
Results indicated that liberal opposition groups would not make it into parliament, with neither the Yabloko party, nor the Parnas party, headed by former prime minister Mikhail Kasyanov, having secured enough votes to win a seat.
The other half of the deputies are being elected on a constituency basis after a change to the election law.
With only a fraction of the votes counted, Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev confidently said that his party would end up with an "absolute majority" in the Duma.
Though the overall tally for United Russia was higher than the 49 per cent it claimed in 2011, participation was low, particularly in Moscow and Saint Petersburg.
Only 47.8 per cent voters cast their ballots, against 60 per cent in 2011, electoral officials said.
Sunday's election follows a tumultuous few years that have seen Russia seize the Crimea peninsula from Ukraine, plunge into its worst standoff with the West since the Cold War and start a military campaign in Syria.
But the Kremlin exerts almost complete control over the media and public discourse, and this year's election campaign was dubbed the dullest in recent memory.
Looming large was the spectre of mass protests over vote rigging that followed the last legislative polls five years ago and grew into the biggest challenge to Putin since he took charge in 2000.
Since then the Kremlin has cracked down on the right to protest while making a show of stamping out electoral manipulation.
The former scandal-tainted election chief was removed in favour of a human rights advocate who allowed more genuine opposition candidates to take part.
Despite the authorities pledging to crack down on vote-rigging, observers around the country made claims of violations including "cruise-voting" - where people are bussed to vote at multiple polling stations - and ballot stuffing.
Electoral Commission chief Ella Pamfilova admitted that there had been problems in certain regions but officials said the number of violations was way down on the last vote.
"In any case there already is full confidence that the elections are nonetheless quite legitimate," Pamfilova said.
For the first time since Moscow seized the Black Sea peninsula of Crimea in 2014, residents there voted for Russia's parliament, in a poll slammed by Ukraine as illegal.
Voters in some areas of the vast country were also electing regional leaders.
In the North Caucasus region of Chechnya, strongman Ramzan Kadyrov looked set to win the first electoral test of his rule after rights groups said that criticism was ruthlessly silenced during the campaign.