Russia has hardened its military doctrine, identifying new threats from ATO after the alliance increased tensions with its Cold War foe over the conflict in Ukraine and dragged Ukraine closer to the US-led military alliance.
Russian President Vladimir Putin today signed a new military doctrine, naming NATO expansion among key external risks, the Kremlin said.
The revised document posted today on the Kremlin website names attempts to overthrow neighboring governments as a major threat, as well as the NATO's buildup close to the country's borders.
Earlier this week, Russia said NATO was turning Ukraine into a "frontline of confrontation" and threatened Kiev to sever remaining ties if Ukraine's hopes of joining NATO were realised.
Kiev's pursuit of NATO membership and the parliament's renunciation of Ukraine's neutral status on Tuesday has outraged Moscow and deepened the worst confrontation between Russia and the West.
Russia also cited as threats of misinformation campaigns, sabotage by foreign intelligence, the deployment of missile-defence components and high-precision conventional weapons, and the use of information technology for military purposes.
All these threaten to heighten Russia's post-Cold War standoffs with the US and Europe, which began with the annexation of Ukraine's Crimea peninsula in March after the ousting of Ukraine's pro-Kremlin President Viktor Yanukovych.
The NATO move to impose a series of sanctions against Russia has pushed Russia's economy to the brink of recession.