Livestock population in India declines, animal productivity rises

India's livestock population declined 3.33 per cent to 512 million in 2012, compared with the previous census of 2007, even as the number of milch animals showed a significant increase in the five years.

According to the official livestock census released on Wednesday, the man-to-livestock ratio in the country declined to one farm animal for every second Indian even as the number of 'animals-in-milk' increased to 80.52 million in 2012 from 77.04 million in 2007.

The total livestock population consisting of cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, pig, horses and ponies, mules, donkeys, camels, mithun and yak in the country stood at 512.05 million in 2012, which showed a decline of 3.33 per cent over the previous censes of 2007, official figures released on Wednesday showed.

While overall livestock population in the country declined, some states showed a rise in the number of animals. Gujarat recorded the highest increase of 15.36 per cent while Uttar Pradesh reported a growth rate of 14.01 per cent, followed by Assam (10.77 per cent), Punjab (9.57 per cent) Bihar (8.56 per cent), Sikkim (7.96 per cent), Meghalaya (7.41 per cent), and Chhattisgarh (4.34 per cent).

The number of milch animals - cows and buffaloes - increased from 111.09 million to 118.59 million while the number of 'animals-in-milk' increased from 77.04 million to 80.52 million. The number of female cattle (cows) also increased to 122.9 million while the female buffalo population increased to 92.5 million in 2012.

The goat and sheep population registered a decline of 3.82 per cent and 9.07 per cent, respectively, over the previous census.

However, the number of exotic / crossbred milch cattle increased from 14.4 million to 19.42 million, showing an increase of 34.78 per cent.

The poultry sector has also showed a healthy increase by 12.39 per cent with the total poultry population at 729.2 million in 2012.

Salient features of 19th Livestock Census

  • Total livestock population declines by 3.33 per cent to 512.05 million in 2012, over the previous census of 2007.
  • Livestock population rises in Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Assam, Punjab, Bihar,    Sikkim, Meghalaya and Chhattisgarh.
  • The number of milch animals (in-milk and dry) up 6.75 per cent at 118.59 million from 111.09 million.
  • The number of animals in milk up 4.51 per cent at 80.52 million from 77.04 million in the previous census.
  • Female cattle (cows) population up 6.52 per cent at 122.9 million in 2012 over the 2007 population.
  • Female buffalo population up 7.99 per cent at 92.5 million in 2012 compared to the previous census.
  • The number of exotic / crossbred milch cattle increased by 34.78 per cent to 19.42 million in 2012 from 14.4 million in 2007.
  • Number of indigenous milch cattle increased by 0.17 per cent to 48.12 million in 2012 from 48.04 million in 2007.
  • Number of milch buffaloes increased by 4.95 per cent to 51.05 million in 2012 from 48.64 million in 2007.
  • Total sheep population in the country declined by about 9.07 per cent to 65.06 million in 2012 over census 2007.
  • Goat population declined by 3.82 per cent to 135.17 million in 2012 from the previous census.
  • Total number of pigs in the country have declined by 7.54 per cent to 10.29 million in 2012 from the previous census level..
  • Number of horses and ponies increased by 2.08 per cent over the previous census and their total numbers stood at 0.62 million in 2012.
  • Number of mules in the country increased by 43.34 per cent to 0.19 million in 2012 over the previous census.
  • Camel population decreased by 22.48 per cent over the previous census to 0.4 million in 2012.
  • Total donkey population in the country decreased by 27.22 per cent to 0.32 million in 2012 compared to the previous census level.
  • Poultry population in the country increased by 12.39 per cent to 729.2 million in 2012 compared to the previous census.
  • The number of mithun and yak in the country recorded growth rates of 12.98 per cent and (-) 7.64 per cent to 0.29 million and 0.07 million, respectively, over the previous census.